They are referring to a "shot" of espresso. The Italian standards are that it is a volume of 25 mL plus or minus ten percent. Additional shots in a drink indicate more espresso flavor and a higher caffeine content.
Though I don't generally like to cite Wikipedia as my primary reference, it does in this case have a pretty good overview of terms related to coffee extraction, re-summarized here:
The amount of the original mass of the grounds that ends up in the brewed coffee. Though it certainly depends on the preparation method ("method of extraction", e.g., ...
Yes, the term is an oxymoron.
Miriam Webster agrees with your definition of brewing involving hot water:
to prepare (as tea) by infusion in hot water
That is why the word cold is used as a qualifier to show that it is done with cold water rather than hot water.
Brewing is a part of every coffee preparation method: it's the time when the water (or steam) is in contact with the grounds. It is a generic term.
Percolation however, would only be used when making percolator coffee. You would not talk about percolation time when making espresso, for example. I would not use it as a generic term.
In the world of coffee, the two terms are basically interchangeable - as long as you are talking about water passing through coffee, and that it is also being passed through some sort of filtration.
Percolation by definition is the extraction of a substance by passing water through it. Your brew time would be the time that your water is in contact with your ...
The Short, Tall, and other sizing names are adopted by Starbucks to denote their own serving sizes. Any use in terms of coffee-serving sizes were coined initially by Starbucks which subsequently led to other coffee shops following suit as an established method.
The list of sizes are as follows:
Short 8 fl. oz. / 240mL
Tall 12 fl. oz. / 350mL
Grande (Big in ...
'Percolation' refers to any brewing process where constantly moving water passes through a bed of coffee in a filter. This water can pass through once (pour over, Chemex, batch brew etc) or multiple times (traditional percolator). Espresso is technically a percolation method.
When coffee is left to steep in water it is known as immersion or infusion brewing. ...
In an academic article (in English language and authored by two Italian authors) espresso preparation is divided into these three steps:
Grinding of the roasted coffee
Coffee powder dosing and tamping
Brewing (more correctly Percolation)
In the rest of the document, percolation is preferred. According to this, Eric's first hypothesis in his question about ...
To me a percolator is a just a mechanism. You have a heater at the bottom, a tube, and a check value. The water enters the tube and some of the water is vaporized and it pushes the hot water to the top. They have no pump. That style of coffee maker is called a percolator. From there the term got used a lot ways.