For a given coffee and roasting method, what factors of the espresso making process affect the crema and in what way(s) do they affect it? By my own empirical evidence, I would guess that time since grinding, coarseness of the grind, and tamping pressure are the biggest factors.

2 Answers 2


From Wikipedia:

The "crema" is produced by emulsifying the oils in the ground coffee into a colloid, which does not occur in other brewing methods. enter image description here

Using the right material from the start

Personally, I think this definition could use some updating. Crema exists because of the freshness of the coffee, in relation to it's roast. It contains the gasses we find from roasting, such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen gasses. You will notice that if you dig up coffee that is months old and brew it as espresso, there will be little crema. Bottoml ine, if you want crema, you need fresh coffee.


The other factor in producing crema, is correct extraction. If you have a poorly extracted shot of espresso, it will be primarily water, with some seriously over-extracted coffee. An even extraction will produce the highest yield of crema.

  • Thank you for your answer. Can you elaborate on what you mean by an even extraction? Does that include the coarseness of the grounds?
    – Alex A.
    Jan 27, 2015 at 21:07
  • If you read my answer about tamping, I talk about even extractions, and physics dictating that water will take the path of least resistance.
    – John Snow
    Jan 27, 2015 at 21:09
  • I did read that answer. Perhaps this is just an artifact of my limited knowledge, but I don't see how the properties of the grind play into that. It seems to be more about tamping (which is helpful--thanks).
    – Alex A.
    Jan 27, 2015 at 21:13
  • The eveness of extraction is unrelated to the coarseness of the grind.
    – John Snow
    Jan 27, 2015 at 21:18
  • 1
    I would add that, pre-infusion of approximately 15 ml prior to full extraction can greatly increase the amount of crema produced, as the extraction in the puck itself will be more even than it would be otherwise. You can tell if you aren't getting the most that you could out of the puck by seeing if the center is darker than the edges when you remove it from the filter.
    – Tim Post
    Jan 28, 2015 at 2:29

In their famous study on coffee crema, Illy and Navarini states:

The key to interpret the several factors affecting the crema, seems to be the carbon dioxide content of roasted coffee in addition to CO2 possibly present as bicarbonate ions in the water ingredient. Most of the data reported in the present review may suggest that espresso brewing can be described as “a quick way to transfer carbon dioxide from roasted and ground coffee to a small cup by means of hot water under pressure”. This then leads to the facts that for espresso coffee, carbon dioxide has to be:

  • generated by roasting
  • maintained in the bean by proper packaging
  • maintained in the ground coffee
  • solubilized in water
  • released into the beverage.

In this framework statements such as “any error in grinding or in percolation, in temperature or extraction level, has an immediate effect on denounced by the color, the texture and the persistence of the foam” or “the foam is the signature of a well-prepared espresso” can be well justified. In fact, foam volume, persistence, and consistence are the consequences of the carbon dioxide content originally present in the coffee. In addition to the importance of carbon dioxide in espresso coffee foam, we believe that carbon dioxide can play a role even from a taste point of view. This aspect has not yet been the subject of investigation.

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