Yup, you had a caffeine overdose and some symptoms of acute caffeine toxicity.
Caffeine is metabolized by your liver, specifically by the CYP1A2 pathway of the cytochrome P450 enzyme complex and there are a lot of prescription drugs, foods and herbal remedies that will slow or speed up caffeine clearance (elimination).
What you could have done to speed up your recovery was to stay well hydrated, consider moderate aerobic exercise and if possible sleep through the worst of it. But to answer your question directly, a meal of charbroiled beef with cabbage, cauliflower or broccoli, all foods known to induce CYP1A2 activity would hasten caffeine elimination.
As would, in theory, the prescription drug regadenoson (adenosine agonist) or varied mild anti-anxiety or tranquilizers for symptomatic relief.
You'd especially want to avoid, if possible foods the following that would prolong the half life of caffeine: grapefruit juice, cumin, tumeric, St. John's wort, peppermint tea. And if practical avoid prescription drugs that would strongly inhibit CYP1A2 e.g. ciprofloxacin, fluoroquinolones, fluvoxamine, verapamil and oral contraceptives.