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Different coffee varieties can produce very different flavour profiles. A different flavour profile points to differences in the chemical mix inside the cup.

Are there any studies that quantify these differences?

  • Profile roasters often observe for flavor profiles and not for chemical content, as its generally expensive to perform chemical analysis. – tsturzl Oct 8 '15 at 0:33
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Sort of... These links, including the redesigned coffee lexicon might help answer your question

http://worldcoffeeresearch.org/images/pdfs/WCR_Sensory_Lexicon_Edition_1_2016.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furan-2-ylmethanethiol

EDIT:

Additional information on the chemistry of coffee taste. This is produced by what we know as the Maillard Reaction - the Maillard Reaction (MRx). Discovered by a French chemist in 1910 the MRx is what is largely responsible for transforming the mere handful of compounds found in green coffee (unroasted) to the complex aromatic beverage that it is today. As temperatures reach 150°C (302°F) the MRx causes free proteins to combine with sugars to form aromatic compounds such as furans which impart sweet, caramel like notes to the coffee. enter image description here:

More on this chemical reaction here: https://www.coffeechemistry.com/library/coffee-science-publications/unlocking-coffee-s-chemical-composition-part-2

Remember. Coffee differs from region to region - water, soil, temperature, altitude, sunlight, humidity, etc. Many, many factors go into how coffee gets its distinct flavor and notes.

  • When posting links, please provide a brief summary of the content -- such as why they answer the question and what they're about. It makes your answer much more valuable (and valued!) and will allow the answer to stand on its own even if the link breaks in the future -- see this and more suggestions on How to Answer. Welcome to Stack Exchange! – hoc_age Feb 18 '16 at 3:23
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Coffee can be good in many different ways, from

  • Variety, as you point out
  • Origin
  • Crop/season
  • Grading quality
  • Processing type/quality
  • Shipping
  • Storate duration and vehicle

Etc etc.

So coffee quality is often measured according to the standards of the CQI (Coffee Quality Institute) that produces the Q grader certification. Graders taste the coffee and score it on many metrics before putting the score as a number between one and one hundred. Traditionally 80+ was considered the threshold for 'specialty' coffee. But there are many, many kinds of coffee that make it to 80+ - all great but in different ways.

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