So Tom Medley has a great answer, but its pretty much based on your temperate climate biases. Coffee is grown in the tropics/sub tropics, and time of year has much less effect on us then it does in temperate zones. I pick coffee all year round, with great flavor, although twice per year the output shoots up, locally we call this harvest time.
The important point here is not time of year, but maturation time for each bean. When I pick coffee there are ripe red beans, maturing beans, green beans and flowers on my plants. Said a different way, there are beans at different stages of production. To be picked 'at the right time' means waiting for each bean to be big and red and ripe, and not pick it before, or long after that point. This is what really matters for the quality.